# Useful R functions

Today seems as good a day as any to start archiving all the useful R functions I see scattered around the internet. And here seems as good a place as any to do it since I can see it and so can anyone else who is interested. Two to start, will add more as I get them. Credit to original authors, follow the link.

Removing whitespace

```
trimws()

```

Extract the last n characters of a string

```
substrRight <- function(x, n){
substr(x, nchar(x)-n+1, nchar(x))
}

```

I can’t credit this one, sadly, I can’t remember where I stole it from. It’s a nice summary of the Anscombe data anyway. Sorry to whoever wrote it! I’ve used it many times, I’m grateful to you!

```
library(ggplot2)
library(plyr)

anscombe2 <- with(anscombe, data.frame(
x     = c(x1, x2, x3, x4),
y     = c(y1, y2, y3, y4),
group = gl(4, nrow(anscombe))))

(stats <- ddply(anscombe2, .(group), summarize, mean = mean(y),
std_dev = sd(y), correlation = cor(x, y), lm_intercept = lm(y ~ x)\$coefficients[1],
lm_x_effect = lm(y ~ x)\$coefficients[2]))

(p <- ggplot(anscombe2, aes(x, y)) +

geom_point() +

facet_wrap(~ group)
)

```

This one I always forget, and it’s so useful. Extract the nth element from a list, returning a list

```
> splitThemes
[[1]]
[1] "Communication" "Other"

[[2]]

[[3]]

> lapply(splitThemes, "[", 2)
[[1]]
[1] "Other"

[[2]]
[1] "Other"

[[3]]
[1] "Waiting time"

```

On the subject of the “[” function, look at this beauty I just found on Stack Overflow.

```
x <- c('foobar','foo:bar','foo1:bar1 foo:bar','foo bar')
> sapply(str_split(x,":"),'[',1)
[1] "foobar"  "foo"     "foo1"    "foo bar"

```

There seem to be various issues with OS with this one, follow the link above for more. For me (Ubunutu Linux) it seems to work on some machines and not on others. I’m afraid I don’t know enough to figure out why and I’m repeatedly crashing RStudio trying to find out, so I’ve given in for now. I may come back to this when I’m less thick.

```

```

If you can’t get it working there’s a lovely package that will do it for you (when isn’t there?).

Strip HTML from a string

```
gsub("<(.|\n)*?>","",string

```

Read several spreadsheets from within one folder and stick them all together

I changed this one slightly from the place whence I stole it, so you may like to look at the original in the link above to see which is closer to what you are doing.

```
file_list <- list.files("~/YOUR/PATH/HERE", full.names = TRUE)

dataset <- do.call("rbind", lapply(file_list, FUN = function(files){
}
))

```

Change a vector of strings to title case

```
strings = c("first phrase", "another phrase to convert",
"and here's another one", "last-one")
gsub("\\b([a-z])([a-z]+)", "\\U\\1\\L\\2" ,strings, perl=TRUE)
## [1] "First Phrase"              "Another Phrase To Convert"
## [3] "And Here's Another One"    "Last-One"

```

And we all want to rbind dataframes with different number of columns occasionally, here’s a cool function to do that.

```
library(gtools)
df1 <- data.frame(a = c(1:5), b = c(6:10))
df2 <- data.frame(a = c(11:15), b = c(16:20), c = LETTERS[1:5])

smartbind(df1, df2)

# result
a  b    c
1.1  1  6 <NA>
1.2  2  7 <NA>
1.3  3  8 <NA>
1.4  4  9 <NA>
1.5  5 10 <NA>
2.1 11 16    A
2.2 12 17    B
2.3 13 18    C
2.4 14 19    D
2.5 15 20    E

```

Plotting a binomial outcome against a continuous variable

```
library(ggplot2) # plotting package for R

N=100
data=data.frame(Q=seq(N), Freq=runif(N,0,1), Success=sample(seq(0,1),
size=N, replace=TRUE))

ggplot(data, aes(x=Freq, y=Success))+geom_point(size=2, alpha=0.4)+
stat_smooth(method="loess", colour="blue", size=1.5)+
xlab("Frequency")+
ylab("Probability of Detection")+
theme_bw()

```

Report the memory usage of all the objects in the current session

```
sort(sapply(ls(), function(x){
format(object.size(get(x)), units = "MB")
}
)
)

```

Split a vector into equal n sized chunks

```
chunk <- function(x,n) split(x, cut(seq_along(x), n, labels = FALSE))

```

First day of the month

```
# get some dates for the toy example:
df1 <- data.frame(YourDate = as.Date("2012-01-01") + seq(from = 1,to = 900,by = 11))

df1\$DayOne <- df1\$YourDate - as.POSIXlt(df1\$YourDate)\$mday + 1

```

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